High Performance Linux

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> Or check custom high-performance solutions from Tempesta Technologies, INC.

> Careers: if you love low-level C/C++ hacking and Linux, we'll be happy to hear from you.

Wednesday, November 6, 2019

Tempesta Technologies blog

NatSys Laboratory Ltd. was rebranded to Tempesta Technologies, so we closed the original site natsys-lab.com and now it's time to move to the Tempesta Technilogies blog.

All the further posts will be available at http://tempesta-tech.com/blog/ . The blog will remain the same - we're passionate about technologies, so we'll continue with the deep technical articles.

There is the summary of the most interesting posts from this blog.

I hope you'll enjoy our new blog!

Saturday, May 18, 2019

Intelpocalypse: goodbye fast system calls

Intel announced MDS (aka ZombieLoad) vunerability. Earlier, in 2018, there was announced Metdown.

Modern Linux kernel is compiled with Kernel page table isolation (KPTI) to prevent Metldown. Essentially, KPTI is just a removal of old technique to optimize system calls, aka lazy TLB: kernel space is mapped to all page tables for user space processes, so there is no need to flush 1 layer caches on kernel/user-space context switches. Performance impact is serious: up to 20% for Nginx (MariaDB got even 40% for certain workloads).

MDS goes further in slowing down system calls, it introduces mds_clear_cpu_buffers() called on each context switch. Performance impact seems not so huge as for the Meltdown prevention, but it's clear that system calls become even more slow.

The good news is that Tempesta FW works in kernel space, so there is no context switches and KPTI and MDS do not affect our performance at all. Moreover, we accurately program our most performance crucial code (HTTP processing) in assembly and use retpoline Spectre prevention only where it's necessary. Retpoline may have up to 15% performance impact, but, fortunately, not each indirect jump must use retpoline to be safe against Spectre.